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1939
A handful of Spanish artists, including Eugenio Granell and Jose Vela Zanetti, immigrated to Santo Domingo of the Dominican Republic and introduced the modern art idiom.
Links: Artist, Spain, Dominican Rep.     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1943 Sep 23
Julio Iglesias De la Cueva, Spanish singer (To All the Girls I’ve Loved Before…), was born in Madrid.
Links: Spain, Pop&Rock     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1945
Carmen Laforet (23), Spanish writer, authored her first novel “Nada” (Nothing). It was set in Spain during the 1930s and conveyed the crushing weight of war through its characters. An English translation became available in 2007.
Links: Spain, Writer, Books     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1952
Rafael del Pino founded Grupo Ferrovial S.A., a multinational Spanish company involved in construction, infrastructure, real estate, and related services.
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1952
Barnaby Conrad (1922-2013) authored the bestseller "Matador," about the life of Manolete, Spain's greatest bullfighter. He later used royalties from the book to move back to San Francisco and open his El Matador saloon.
Links: Spain, USA, Writer, SF, Books     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1953
The Spanish film “Bienvenido Mister Marshall!” was directed by Luis Garcia Berlanga.
Links: Spain, Film     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1954
Gen. Franco closed the Spanish consulate on Gibraltar in a fit of rage over a visit by Queen Elizabeth II.
Links: Spain, Britain, Gibraltar     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1956 Apr 19
In Spain 12 people died and about 70 were injured following earthquakes in the southern Granada region.
Links: Spain, Earthquake     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1956 Nov 22
Melbourne, Australia, hosted this summer’s 16th Olympiad. 65 countries and 4,276 athletes competed. Closing ceremonies were held on Dec 8. The Netherlands and Spain withdrew from the Olympics in support of Hungary following Russia’s invasion. 45 athletes from Hungary defected during the games. Egypt, Lebanon and Iraq boycotted the games in protest over British and French actions over the Suez Canal. China boycotted protesting the inclusion of athletes from Taiwan.
Links: Australia, Iraq, Russia, Spain, China, Taiwan, Hungary, Netherlands, Egypt, Olympics, Lebanon     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1957
In Spain a flood devastated the Ciutat Vella, the historic district of Valencia. To avoid another such deluge the government diverted the Turia River and turned the riverbed into a public green zone.
Links: Spain, Flood     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
International Red Cross
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1958 Dec
Julen Madariaga helped found ETA. EKIN (engage), a Basque nationalist group, transformed into Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (E.T.A., Basque Homeland and Freedom). ETA was the only armed group that emerged in the Spanish state during Francoism [see July 31, 1959].
Links: Spain, Basques, ETA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1959 Jul 31
In Spain dissident student members of the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV), inspired by Marxist-Leninist teachings, formally founded ETA, which stands for Euskadi ta Askatasuna, meaning Basque Fatherland and Liberty in the Basque language. Its founders focused on Gen. Francisco Franco's suppression of the Basque language and culture.
Links: Spain, Basques, ETA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1961 Jul 18
In Spain ETA’s first violent action tried to derail a train carrying supporters of dictator Gen. Francisco Franco.
Links: Spain, , Basques, ETA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1963 Oct 8
Remedios Varo (b.1908), Spanish-born surrealist painter, died in Mexico. Walter Gruen, her 11-year lover and promoter, collected her work and in 1987 attempted to get copyright protection. A Mexican judge denied his request due to Varo’s failure to get a formal divorce from French poet Benjamin Peret. In 1999 the Mexican government tried to seize the paintings on behalf of Mexico but faced a claim by next of kin niece Beatriz Varo. By 2005 Mr. Gruen agreed to give his entire collection to the Mexican government if it gets named after his deceased daughter.
Links: Artist, Spain, Mexico     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1967 Jan 4
Mohamed Khider (b.1912), Algerian politician and a leading figure in the FLN, was assassinated in Madrid, Spain.
Links: Algeria, Spain, Assassin     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
1968 Mar 3
The embassies of Greece, Portugal and Spain were bombed in the Hague.
Links: Portugal, Spain, Netherlands, Greece     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1968 May 5
Spain closed its frontier with Gibraltar. This Followed a referendum in which Gibraltar's voters were asked whether they wished to become part of Spain and voted with a re-sounding no vote.
Links: Spain, Gibraltar     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1968 Jun 7
In Spain ETA, a Basque Homeland and Freedom separatist group, shot and killed Civil Guard Jose Pardines Arcay at a checkpoint. This marked ETA’s 1st killing as it began fighting for independence. Its political wing was Herri Batasuna.
Links: Spain, ETA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1968 Oct 12
Eq. Guinea gained Independence was from Spain. Eq. Guinea consists of two geographic entities: the mainland of Rio Muni and the island of Bioko, formerly Fernando Poo. Francisco Macias became the 1st president and proclaimed himself God’s "unique miracle." He drove the economy into the ground and over a third of the population went into exile.
Links: Spain, Equatorial Guinea     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1968
James Michener (1907-1997), American author, wrote his travel book "Iberia," a detailed and illustrated exploration of Spain at it was during the mid 1960s.
Links: Spain, USA, Writer     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1968
Jerome Mintz (d.1997 at 67), US anthropologist, published "The Anarchists of Casa Viejas," an account and oral history of the 1933 Spanish uprising.
Links: Spain, USA, Books, Anthropology     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1968
In Spain the ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom, a Basque separatist group, began fighting for independence. Its political wing was Herri Batasuna.
Links: Spain, Basques, ETA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1969 Jan 4
Spain returned the Ifni province to Morocco.
Links: Spain, Morocco     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1969 Jan 23
Gregorio Ordonez, deputy mayor of San Sebastian, Spain, was assassinated by an ETA terrorist.
Links: Spain, ETA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1969 Jun 4
Armando Socarras Ramirez (22) sneaked into wheel pod of a jet parked in Havana & survived a 9-hr flight to Spain despite thin oxygen levels at 29,000 ft.
Links: Spain, Cuba, Aviation     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1969 Jun 6
Gen. Franco closed the Gibraltar border with Spain. It stayed closed for 16 years. This effectively starved Gibraltar of workers while depriving some 9,000 former workers of much-needed jobs and of a right to claim pensions. The frontier was not fully reopened until 1985.
Links: Spain, Gibraltar     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1969 Jun
A block of flats near Segovia, Spain, collapsed killing 58 people. Developer Jesus Gil y Gil (1933-2004) was jailed for 5 years for criminal negligence, but was pardoned after 18 months.
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1969 Jul 22
Spain’s dictator Francisco Franco appointed Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon as official successor to the position of Head of State.
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1969
The International Convention for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas entered into force. ICCAT, with headquarters based in Madrid, Spain, was established at a Conference of Plenipotentiaries, which prepared and adopted the convention, signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1966.
Links: Spain, Fish     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1970 Jul 3
A British Dan-Air charter, flying a Comet 4 turbojet, crashed near Barcelona and 112 were killed.
Links: Spain, Britain, Air Crash     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1972 Nov 17
Juan Peron (1895-1974) returned to Argentina from Spain for a short time after 17 years of exile.
Links: Argentina, Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1972
Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) drew his chilling crayon self-portrait as a skull.
Links: Artist, Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1972
In southwest Spain a train collided with a bus killing 86 people and injuring 112.
Links: Spain, Train Crash, Disaster     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1973 Apr 8
Pablo Picasso (b.1881), Spanish artist, died at his home near Mougins, France, at age 91. He left some 50,000 works that included 1,885 paintings, 1,228 sculptures, 2,880 ceramics, 18,095 engravings, 6,112 lithographs, 3,181 linocuts, 7,089 drawings plus 4,669 drawings and sketches in 149 notebooks, 11 tapestries and 8 rugs. Two books of a planned 4-volume biography were published by John Richardson, who then interrupted the series in 2000 with "The Sorcerer’s Apprentice: Picasso, Provence, and Douglas Cooper." Picasso’s estate owed so much in death duties that many of his works fell into government hands. In 2007 John Richardson authored “A Life of Picasso: The Triumphant Years, 1917-1932.”
Links: Artist, Spain, France     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1973 Aug 6
Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar (b.1901), former dictator Cuba (1940-58), died in Spain.
Links: Spain, Cuba     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
1973 Oct 22
Pablo Casals (96), Spanish cellist, conductor and composer died in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico.
Links: Spain, Composer, Puerto Rico     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1973 Dec 20
ETA killed PM Adm. Luis Carrero Blanco with a bomb in Madrid.
Links: Spain, ETA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1974 Jul 19
In the Philippines a Miss Universe beauty pageant was held and thousands of squatters around Manila were forcibly moved out of sight. Amparo Munoz of Spain won.
Links: Spain, Philippines, Pageant     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1974 Sep 12
In its 1st major attack ETA killed 12 people with a bomb at a Madrid cafe.
Links: Spain, ETA     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1974
A Spanish census was conducted in Western Sahara.
Links: Spain, Western Sahara, Census     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
Timelines
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1974
The Suresnes Congress in France handed power over the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party to Felipe Gonzalez (b.1942), who became prime minister of Spain four times (1982-1996).
Links: Spain, France     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1975 May
Spain moved out of Spanish Sahara and the native Sahrawi called for independence. Both Morocco and Mauritania laid claim to Spanish Sahara (Western Sahara) following Spain’s withdrawal. The Polisario Front, an armed nationalist movement, sought to turn Western Sahara into an independent state for its largely nomadic people.
Links: Spain, Morocco, Mauritania, Western Sahara     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1975 Oct 30
Juan Carlos (37) assumed power in Spain after General Franco, near death, gave him control.
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1975 Nov 20
After nearly four decades of absolute rule (1936-1975), Spain's General Francisco Franco died, two weeks before his 83rd birthday. Juan Carlos, grandson of King Alfonso, was his designated successor and the monarchy was restored. In 2002 Gabrielle Ashford Hodges authored "Franco: A Concise Biography."
Links: Spain, Biography     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1975 Nov 22
Juan Carlos was proclaimed king of Spain.
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1975
Spain created the Cervantes Prize, the Spanish speaking world’s highest literary prize.
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1975
Rosalia Mera (1944-2013), a seamstress, and her husband, Armancio Ortega, co-founded a clothing store in La Coruna, Spain. It grew into Zara, one of the world's largest retail chains.
Links: Spain, Fashion, Retail     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1976 Jul 3
Spain’s King Juan Carlos appointed Adolfo Suarez (1932-2014), a young Francoist minister, as prime minister in an effort to try to unite Francoists and anti-Franco socialists, who were still in a sense fighting the 1936-1939 civil war.
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1976 Jul 14
Carmelo Soria (b.1921), a Spanish UN official in Chile, was abducted. His corpse found two days later in a car sunk in the Canal del Carmen in the Piramide sector of Santiago de Chile. He was assassinated by Chile's DINA agents as a part of Operation Condor. Soria was first detained in the Vía Naranja house in the sector of Lo Curro, shared by DINA agent Michael Townley.
Links: Chile, Spain, USA, Murder     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1976 Sep 8
Joaquin Zamacois Soler (b,1894), Spanish composer, died.
Links: Spain, Composer     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
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1976 Nov 18
Spain's parliament approved a bill to establish a democracy after 37 years of dictatorship.
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1976 Dec 11
Hungarian art forger Elmyr de Hory (b.1906) died of a lethal overdose of barbiturates in Ibiza, Spain. The 1969 book "Fake" by Clifford Irving was about De Hory and both Irving and de Hory were featured in the 1975 Orson Welles film "F" for Fake.
Links: Artist, Spain, Fraud     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1976
A statue of Spain’s King Carlos III, who ordered Juan Bautista de Anza to explore California in 1775, was given to SF from the Spain’s King Juan Carlos as a bicentennial gift.
Links: Spain, USA, SF     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1976
Four members of a Spanish family were killed in Rosario, Argentina. Pres. Gen’l. Leopoldo Galtieri was later accused of being responsible by a Spanish court. In 1999 Spanish Judge Baltasar Garzon named former Argentine Pres. Leopoldo Galtieri in an indictment along with 95 other military officers, who presided over the "Dirty War" (1976-1983).
Links: Argentina, Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1976
Rabbits were imported to Iceland from Spain about this time. Some were later released into the wild and began to compete with the native puffin birds, which breed in burrows.
Links: Spain, Iceland, Animal     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
1977 Jun 15
The first general election in Spain since 1936 resulted in victory for the UCD (Union of Democratic Centre).
Links: Spain     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1977 Oct 14
Bing Crosby (b.1903), singer and actor, died on a golf course outside Madrid at age 74. In 2001 Gary Giddins authored "Bing Crosby: A Pocketful of Dreams: The Early Years: 1903-1940."
Links: Spain, USA, Pop&Rock, Film Star     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1977
Vicente Aleixandre (1898-1984), Spanish poet, won the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Links: Spain, Poet, Nobel Prize     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1977
Spain began experiencing a banking crises.
Links: Spain, Banking     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
 
1978 May 4
The Hispanic ethnic group was created when the US Office of Management and Budget published the following regulation in the Federal Register: "Directive 15: Race and Ethnic Standards for Federal Statistics and Administrative Reporting" that defined a Hispanic to be "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture … In 1981 a US federal law stated that Spaniards are part of the Hispanic group.
Links: Spain, USA, Sociology, Language     Click to see the source(s) for this event 
Timelines
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