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343 BC
332 BC
In Egypt the Persians ruled for a 2nd time.
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343 BC
338 BC
Artaxerxes III (Ochus), king of Persia, served as 1st ruler of Egypt’s 31st Dynasty.
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338 BC
Artaxerxes III (Ochus), king of Persia, was murdered by his own commander Bagoas.
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338 BC
Arses, the youngest son of Ochus, succeeded his father as king of Persia. He served as the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s 31st Dynasty.
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336 BC
Arses, king of Persia and ruler of Egypt’s 31st Dynasty, was murdered by his commander Bagoas.
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332 BC
Alexander entered Egypt and founded Alexandria.
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331 BC
Alexander left Egypt and and left Cleomenes of Naukratis in charge. This position was later claimed by Ptolemy. When Alexander died, Ptolemy's generals divided the kingdom.
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330 BC
Alexandria became the capital of Egypt.
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323 BC Jun 10
Alexander died In Persia at Babylon at the age of 32. His general, Ptolemy, took possession of Egypt. Apelles was a painter in Alexander's court. He had been commissioned by Alexander to paint a portrait of Campaspe, Alexander's concubine. Apelles fell in love with Campaspe and Alexander granted her to him in marriage. In 1984 Curtius Quintas Rufus authored "the History of Alexander." In 1991 Peter Green authored "Alexander of Macedon, A Historical Biography."

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323 BC
285 BC
Ptolemy I Soter, son of Lagus and commander under Alexander, ruled Egypt as the first king of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Under his rule the library of Alexandria was commissioned.
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323 BC
30 BC
The Ptolemy and his descendants ruled over Egypt. This era came to be known as the Ptolemaic period. At the ancient library of Alexandria Callimachus of Cyrene was the first to catalog writings alphabetically.
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300 BC
In 2005 a well-preserved and colorful mummy from the 30th pharaonic dynasty was unveiled at Egypt’s Saqqara pyramid complex.
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300 BC
200 BC
Scientists of the Univ. of Calif. Berkeley expedition of 1899 uncovered hundreds of crocodile mummies encased and stuffed with papyrus covered with writings from the ruins of the city of Tebtunis. The site dated from the 3rd century BCE when Ptolemy the Great ruled Egypt.
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290 BC
Ptolemy I of Egypt authorized the construction of the Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria. It became one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
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285 BC
246 BC
Ptolemy II (b.c309BC, Philadelphus) of Macedonia served as the 2nd king of Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty. During his reign (285-247) he founded the Cyprian port of Famagusta and built a canal to link the Nile to the gulf of Suez.
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279 BC
The Pharos at Alexandria was constructed. The lighthouse, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, was toppled by an earthquake in 1303CE. It was rediscovered by archeologists in the waters off Alexandria in 1996.
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246 BC Jan 9
Ptolemy II Philadelphus, 2nd king of Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty, died.
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246 BC
222 BC
Ptolemy III Eeuergeter served as Egypt’s 3rd ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
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246 BC
222 BC
Ptolemy III Euergeter served as Egypt’s 3rd ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. In 2010 archeologists discovered a temple, thought to belong to Queen Berenice, wife of King Ptolemy III who ruled Egypt in the 3rd century B.C. Archeologists believed that the temple might have been dedicated to the ancient cat-goddess Bastet.
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222 BC
205 BC
Ptolemy IV Philopater served as Egypt’s 4th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
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205 BC
180 BC
Ptolemy V Epiphanes served as Egypt’s 5th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. He became ruler at age 5 following the death of his father. He married Cleopatra I and died at age 29 while putting down insurgents in the Delta. His wife became regent for their young son.
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200 BC
The Egyptian priest Hor cared for the ibis galleries. His writings explained that hundreds of people were involved in the animal mummification business at Saqqara.
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200 BC
About this time Eratosthenes (c276-c194), a Greek mathematician, ascribed the difference between the positions of the noon sun at Alexandria and at Styrene at the summer solstice as due to the curvature of the Earth. He thereby calculated the radius of the Earth to be about 4,000 miles. The modern value is 3963 miles.
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196 BC
The Rosetta Stone, found in 1799, was inscribed about this time. It affirmed the rule of Ptolemy V (age 13) in 3 languages.
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190 BC
120 BC
Hypsicles of Alexanderia, mathematician. He wrote “On the Ascension of Stars,” in which he was the first to divide the Zodiac into 360 degrees.
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180 BC
164 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor served as Egypt’s 6th ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. His regent mother died around 176BC and Ptolemy ruled under the control of his guardians, Eulaeus and Lenaeus.
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164 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor went to Rome and left Egypt under the rule of his brother Ptolemy VII Euergetes II Physcon.
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163 BC
145 BC
Ptolemy VI Philometor was called back to Egypt and agreed to split their rule. Physcon assumed rule of the western province of Cyrenaica and Philometor ruled Egypt.
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69 BC
Cleopatra (d.30BC), daughter of Ptolemy XII, was born. She was queen of Egypt from 51BC-49BC, 48BC-30BC. During her reign she declared earthworms to be sacred and her subjects were forbidden to kill them.
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51 BC
49 BC
Cleopatra was queen of Egypt from 51BC-49BC and 48BC-30BC.
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50 BC Jun
50 BC Aug
The "Zodiac of Dendera," a map of the stars of this period, was carved in stone. It is now in the French Louvre.
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48 BC Sep 28
On landing in Egypt, Pompey was murdered on the orders of King Ptolemy of Egypt.
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47 BC
The library at Alexandria was ravaged by fire.
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32 BC
A Roman coin dating from this time bore the images of Cleopatra on one side and Marc Antony on the reverse. It represented one three hundredth of a Roman soldier's salary and was probably minted to pay the wages of those stationed in Egypt.
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31 BC Sep 2
The Naval Battle of Actium in the Ionian Sea, between Roman leader Octavian and the alliance of Roman Mark Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Octavian soundly defeated Antony's fleet which was burned and 5000 of his men were killed. Cleopatra committed suicide. The rivals battled for control of the Roman Empire in the naval battle of Actium, where Cleopatra, seeing Antony's navy being outmaneuvered by Octavian's, ordered her 60 ships to turn about and flee to safety.
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30 BC Aug 30
Cleopatra, the 7th and most famous queen of ancient Egypt, committed suicide about this time.
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30 BC
Rome gained control over Egypt. The wheat fields of Egypt became one of Rome's main sources of food. Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
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27 BC
An earthquake hit Egypt and devastated the temple of Amenhotep III in Luxor, which dated to about 1389.
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25 BC
Strabo, a geographer and scholar from Alexandria, made the most comprehensive map of the known world.
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23
24
Strabo (b.~63-64BC), Greek geographer and historian, died about this time. He had traveled to Egypt and Kush, met members of the Noba tribe, and decided to call their country Nubia. Strabo is mostly famous for his 17-volume work Geographica, which presented a descriptive history of people and places from different regions of the world known to his era.
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96 Jul 1
Vespasian, a Roman Army leader, was hailed as a Roman Emperor by the Egyptian legions.
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130
Antinous, the Greek lover of Roman Emperor Hadrian, died in the Nile. Hadrian insisted that Antinous be given the status of a god.
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150
Claudius Ptolemy, a Roman citizen of Egypt, authored his “Almagest” about this time. It was a mathematical and astronomical treatise, written in Greek, on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths. Ptolemy of Alexandria published his theory of epicycles, the idea that the moon, the sun and the planets moved in circles around the Earth.
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168
Claudius Ptolemy (b.~90), a Roman citizen of Egypt, died about this time. As a geographer and mapmaker he collected information from travelers and constructed maps of the then known world. His maps were forgotten as the Roman Empire declined and were not rediscovered until the early 1400s. Robert Newton in his book "The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy" (1977), called him "the most successful fraud in the history of science."
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249
Apollonia of Alexandria died. She was among group of virgin martyrs who suffered in Alexandria during a local uprising against the Christians prior to the persecution of Decius. According to legend her torture included having all of her teeth violently pulled out or shattered. She thus became popularly regarded as the patroness of dentistry.
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270
Zenobia of Syria proclaimed herself "Queen of the East" and attacked Roman colonies adjoining her and conquered Egypt.
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272
Roman emperor Aurelian sent an army to attack Zenobia’s troops in Egypt and was repulsed.
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300
400
As long ago as the 4th century, an Egyptian scientist named Papp suggested there should be a science called heuristics to solve inventive problems.
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300
400
Ammon Scholasticus, Greek lawyer, worked in Panopolis. In 1997 Prof. William H. Willis (d.2000) of Duke Univ. completed an archive of his papers: "The Archives of Ammon Scholasticus."
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317 Aug 7
Flavius Julius Constantius II, Emperor Egypt, Byzantium, Rome (337-61), was born.
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340
360
The Codex Sinaiticus, a manuscript of the Christian Bible, was written in the middle of the fourth century and contains the earliest complete copy of the Christian New Testament. For most of its history it resided at St. Catherine’s Monastery built (527-565) on Egypt Mt. Sinai. It left the monastery in the 19th century for Russia, in circumstances that were later disputed.
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347 May 14
Pachomius, Egyptian monastery founder, abbot (Coenobieten), died.
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365 Jul 21
An earthquake, whose epicenter was in Crete, leveled the Egyptian Port of Alexandria as well as the Roman outpost of Leptis Magna in Libya. Some 50,000 people died. The ancient Egyptian city, known as Leukaspis or Antiphrae, was hidden for centuries after it was nearly wiped out by the tsunami. When Chinese engineers began cutting into the sandy coast to build the roads for a new resort in 1986, they struck the ancient tombs and houses of the town founded in the second century B.C.
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411
Proclus (d.485), Greek mathematician and theologian, was born. [see 412]
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415
Archbishop Cyril of Alexandria sent a mob of religious police to stop Hypatia, an eccentric pagan ascetic and scholar.
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490 Oct 29
Petrus Mongus, patriarch of Alexandria, died.
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527
565
Emperor Justinian built the St. Catherine monastery in Egypt’s Sinai Desert to house the bones of St. Catherine of Alexandria, who was tortured to death for converting to Christianity. The site was thought to be the place where Moses saw the Miracle of the Burning Bush.
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570
John Philoponus (b.490), a Christian and Aristotelian commentator (aka John of Alexandria or John the Grammarian), died.
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600
700
The library at Alexandria disappeared in the 7th century.
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628 Apr 3
In Persia, Kavadh sued for peace with the Byzantines. He handed back Armenia, Byzantine Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt.
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