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720 BC
715 BC
Wahkare Bakenranef ruled in Egypt as the 2nd king of the 24th Dynasty.
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712 BC
698 BC
Shebaka of Nubia ruled in Egypt. Some consider him the 1st king of the 25th Dynasty.
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710 BC
Hanunu of Gaza was in the revolt against the king of Assyria which led to the battle of Raphia, the first struggle between Egypt and Assyria. Hanunu, the king of Gaza, fled to Sebako (Shebaka), king of Egypt; but returned and, having made submission, was received with favor.
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700 BC
A three foot tall bust of Pharaoh Shabako was on loan from Cairo at St. Petersburg, Florida.
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698 BC
690 BC
Shebitku, nephew of Shebaka, ruled in Egypt as the 2nd king of the 25th Dynasty.
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690 BC
664 BC
The Nubian Pharaoh Taharqa, brother of Shebitku, ruled over the upper Nile Nubian-Egyptian state. He is mentioned in the Bible as a pyramid builder. A sculpture of the Cushite king was discovered in the basement of "God's House Tower," an archeological museum, in England in 2000.
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671 BC
Esarhaddon [of Assyria] recorded a victory over lower Egypt at the cliff face of the Nahr al Kalb (Dog River), between Beirut and Byblos.
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664 BC
610 BC
Psammetichus ruled in Egypt as the 1st king of the 26th Dynasty. He did not gain control of Egypt until his 9th year of rule.
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662 BC
The Assyrian Empire collapsed and Egypt enjoyed about a century of independence.
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660 BC
Governor Ment (Mentuemhet) served as governor of Upper Egypt, mayor of Thebes, and 4th prophet of Amun.
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657 BC
525 BC
Period of Egypt’s Dynasty 26.
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655 BC
Psammetichus, 26th Dynasty king, gained control of Egypt in his 9th year of rule.
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654 BC
657 BC
Tantamani (Tanwetamani) ruled in Egypt as last Cushite king and the last of the king of the 25th Dynasty.
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640 BC
In Egypt a burial chamber at the necropolis of Saqqara dating back to this time was uncovered in 2009. The chamber contained 8 sarcophagi.
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610 BC
595 BC
Nekau II (Necho), son of Psammetichus I, ruled in Egypt as king of the 26th Dynasty. Under his rule Palestine became an Egyptian possession.
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609 BC
The biblical king Josiah of Judah was slain on Har (Mt.) Megiddo (root of Armageddon) about this time when he was betrayed by Pharaoh Necho, whom he had approached to stop from going to war on the side of the Assyrians against the Babylonians.
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606 BC
In Cairo, Egypt, the Ben Ezra Synagogue was established.
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600 BC
Lady Gautseshenu died about this time in southern Egypt. In 2011 a CT scan of her mummy, performed at North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset, NY, indicated that she was about 16 years old at the time of her death.
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595 BC
589 BC
Psammetichus II (Psamtik II), son of Nacho II, ruled in Egypt as a 26th Dynasty king. Psamtik II built the temple of Hibis in the al-Khargah oasis, 310 miles south of Cairo. It was built to worship Amun and contained statues of Amun's wife, Mut.
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593 BC
The Nubians were defeated by a resurgent Egyptian dynasty after which they moved their capital from Napata to Meroe.
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589 BC
570 BC
Apries, son of Psamtik II, ruled in Egypt as a 26th Dynasty king.
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574 BC
570 BC
Apries, 26th Dynasty king Egyptian ruler, conducted campaigns against Cyprus and Phoenicia.
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570 BC Feb
General Amasis (Ahmose II), proclaimed Pharoah of Egypt by his soldiers, defeated Apries and his Aegean mercenaries and forced his retreat.
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570 BC Oct
General Amasis (Ahmose II) defeated King Apries a 2nd time and took control of a united Egypt. Apries sought refuge abroad and later turned up at the court of Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon.
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570 BC
526 BC
Amasis (Ahmose II), proclaimed Pharoah by his soldiers, ruled Egypt as the 5th king of the 26th Dynasty. Amasis consolidated Greek merchants to the area of Naukratis. This made for easier control, and created a lucrative income for the crown in the form of taxes. After an attempted invasion by Chaldaeans he formed an alliance with the Chaldaeans, Croesus of Lydia and Sparta.
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567 BC
Apries, former ruler of Egypt, marched on Egypt at the head of a Babylonian army, but once again, Amasis defeated him, this time capturing the former king.
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565 BC
545 BC
The island of Cyprus was under Egyptian control.
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548 BC
The Greek Temple of Apollo was destroyed. Amasis, ruler of Egypt, is said to have financed its rebuilding.
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546 BC
The Persians destroyed Egypt’s alliance with the Chaldeans, Lydia and Sparta by first capturing Lydia then the Chaldaeans.
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539 BC
Babylon, under Chaldean rule since 612BC, fell to the Persians. Cyrus the Persian captured Babylon after the New Babylonian leader, Belshazaar, failed to read "the handwriting on the wall." The Persian Empire under Cyrus lasted to 331BC, when it was conquered by Alexander the Great. Cyrus returned some of the exiled Jews to Palestine, while other Jews preferred to stay and establish a 2nd Jewish center, the first being in Jerusalem. The Cyrus Cylinder was created following the Persian conquest of Babylon, when Cyrus overthrew the Babylonian king Nabonidus and replaced him as ruler, ending the Neo-Babylonian Empire. It was discovered in 1879 and became considered as the world's first declaration of human rights.
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539 BC
Cyrus the Great founded Persia’s Achaemenian Empire which he expanded into India, Libya and Egypt. Pasargadae was his first capital. Persepolis was the heart of his empire.
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526 BC
525 BC
Psammetichus III ruled for a short time as the last king of Egypt’s 26th Dynasty.
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525 BC
Cambyses, king of Persia, met and defeated the Egyptians in front of their city at Pelusium just a few weeks after the death of Pharaoh Amasis. This marked the beginning of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty. Psammetichus III tried to revolt against Cambyses and was killed.
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525 BC
522 BC
Cambyses II, son of Cyrus and ruler of Persia, served as the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty. Cambyses added to his Persian empire by conquering Egypt. During his rule an army sent to Siwa Oasis was overcome by sandstorm and buried. Herodotus said the army numbered 50,000 men. A Jewish document from 407 BC known as 'The Demotic Chronicle' speaks of the Cambyses destroying all the temples of the Egyptian gods. Herodotus informs us that Cambyses II was a monster of cruelty and impiety.
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522 BC Aug
Cambyses II, son of Cyrus of Persia and the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 27th Dynasty, died from a dagger wound in Syrian Ecbatana.
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522 BC
A revolt broke out in Egypt following the death of Cambyses, but it was put down by a Persian general named Darius, who succeeded Cambyses.
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522 BC
Darius the Great (558-486), son of Hystaspes, succeeded Cambyses as emperor of Persia. He engaged in many large building programs including a system of roads and instituted the first postal system.
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520 BC
486 BC
Darius, ruler of Persia, occupied Egypt and is considered the 2nd ruler of the 27th Dynasty. During his rule a canal from the Nile River to the Red Sea, probably begun by Necho I in the 7th century BC, was repaired and completed.
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518 BC
Darius visited Egypt and put to death its satrap, Aryandes.
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510 BC
490 BC
In Egypt the temple of Hibis was rebuilt during the reign of Darius.
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500 BC
In 2004 Egyptian archeologists uncovered the limestone sarcophagus of Badi-Herkhib, the elder brother of a governor of Bahariya, who lived around 500 B.C.
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486 BC
Darius (b.550), ruler of Persia, died. His preparations for a 3rd expedition against Greece were delayed by an insurrection in Egypt. He was succeeded by his son Xerxes.
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486 BC
465 BC
Xerxes the Great (b.519BC), king of Persia, ruled Egypt as the 3rd king of the 27th Dynasty. His rule extended from India to the lands below the Caspian and Black seas, to the east coast of the Mediterranean including Egypt and Thrace. Persia’s great cities Sardis, Ninevah, Babylon, and Susa were joined by the Royal Road. East of Susa was Persopolis, a vast religious monument. To the north of Persia were the Scythians.
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465 BC
Xerxes the Great, king of Persia, was assassinated.

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465 BC
424 BC
Artaxerxes, son of Xerxes I, ruled Persia in the Achaemenis dynasty and Egypt as the 4th king of the 27th Dynasty.
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460 BC
Herodotus turned back in frustration at the first cataract at Aswan. He stated: "Of the source of the Nile no one can give any account."
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455 BC
Artaxerxes, ruler of Persia, put down a revolt in Egypt.
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423 BC
404 BC
Darius II, son of Artaxerxes, ruled Persia and Egypt.

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410 BC
Darius II, ruler of Persia, quelled a revolt in Media but lost control of Egypt.
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405 BC
Persian rule of Egypt ended.
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404 BC
399 BC
Amyrtaios (Amyrtaeus), believed to be a Libyan, ruled Egypt following the death of Darius II from Sais as the 1st and only ruler of the 28th Dynasty.
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399 BC
393 BC
Nepherites served as the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. During his rule he entered into an alliance with Sparta against the Persians.
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393 BC
380 BC
Hakoris (Hakor) served as the 2nd or 3rd ruler of Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. There is some confusion because a king named Psammuthis ruled in 393BC. During Hakoris’ reign there was a 3 year war with Persia.
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380 BC
Nepherites II, son of Hakoris, served as the 4th and final ruler of Egypt’s 29th Dynasty. He reigned for only 4 months before being overthrown.
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380 BC
In Egypt a giant stone was set at the Nile’s exit into the Mediterranean by order of Pharaoh Nektanebo I. A smaller stela noted the name of the city as Herakleoin. The city was submerged by an earthquake around 800CE. In 2001 the stones were pulled from the sea.
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380 BC
362 BC
Nectanebo served as the 1st ruler of Egypt’s 30th Dynasty.
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373 BC
The Persian army moved to attack Egypt. They abandoned the effort when the Nile flooded over the Delta.
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365 BC
360 BC
Teos, son of Nectanebo, served as the 2nd ruler of Egypt’s 30th Dynasty. He failed in an attempted attack on Persia and was deserted by the Egyptians and Greek merceneries. He fled to Persia where Artaxerxes II gave him refuge.
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360 BC
343 BC
Nectanebo II served as the 3rd and final ruler of Egypt’s 30th Dynasty.
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343 BC
Artaxerxes III of Persia led a successful campaign against Egypt and Nectanebo II fled to Ethiopia. Artaxerxes appointed Pherendares as satrap of Egypt and returned to Babylon laden with treasures.
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